In our study of Isaiah chapter nine, we look at the prophecies concerning the first and second coming of Christ into this world. In chapter 8, we saw the prophecy of judgement on God's people and delivering them over to their enemies. Now, we see the prophecies of God's deliverance out of the hand of the enemy (the devil).
"Nevertheless, there will be no more gloom for those who were in distress. In the past he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the future he will honor Galilee of the Gentiles, by the way of the sea, along the Jordan-" NIV translation
These were dark days for God's people but, here, He promises the return of light. Galilee was a despised area of the land to the Jews because it was an area where Gentiles had gathered to live. This verse speaks about the first coming of Christ (as a baby) from this area.
"The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned." NIV translation
This verse once again speaks to the fact that a light (Christ) was coming into the land. God is light and so His Son is as well. The land was dark because God had left them and turned them over to their enemies.
"You have enlarged the nation and increased their joy; they rejoice before you as people rejoice at the harvest, as men rejoice when dividing the plunder." NIV translation
Now, Isaiah turns to the prophecy of the second coming of Jesus. We know that because this verse has not been fulfilled as the people of Israel even today do not rejoice before the Lord. There is not even a temple for the Jews to worship God as they gather at the wailing wall. This verse brings hope in the victory that is to come as they will rejoice in the final days.
"For as in the day of Midian's defeat, you have shattered the yoke that burdens them, the bar across their shoulders, the rod of their oppressor. Every warrior's boot used in battle and every garment rolled in blood will be destined for burning, will be fuel for the fire." NIV translation
God has always rescued His people from the hands of those who had them enslaved. This prophecy is speaking about the final time that this will happen and how they will be judged by fire. These events will happen as described in Revelation 16 and will be followed by a thousand years where the Jews will reign on earth with Christ.