In our study of Leviticus chapter five, we see the provision of atonement for the poor through substitution.
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"'If a person who is a witness, sworn to testify, sins by refusing to tell what he has seen or heard about the matter, he must bear the consequences. If a person touches something unclean, whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, a domestic animal or a reptile, he is guilty, even though he may not be aware that he is unclean. If he touches some human uncleanness, no matter what the source of his uncleanness is, and is unaware of it, then, when he learns of it, he is guilty. If someone allows to slip from his mouth an oath to do evil or to do good, and he doesn't remember that he clearly spoke this oath, then, no matter what it was about, when he learns of it, he is guilty.
In this passage we see a group of examples where some either says or does something and it is sinful. We see that, even if they have forgotten about it, the guilt remains and the sin must be dealt with and this is a reminder that God does not forget about sin.
A person guilty of any of these things is to confess in what manner he sinned and bring his guilt offering to ADONAI for the sin he committed; it is to be a female from the flock, either a lamb or a goat, as a sin offering; and the cohen will make atonement for him in regard to his sin.
Now, we see the path to forgiveness for these sins and it begins with confession. Confession is simply admitting that what you said or did was wrong and that judgement is based on what God says is right and wrong. Then, an offering was to be made and it was to be either a female sheep or goat with the offering presented by the priest.
"'If he can't afford a lamb, he is to bring as his guilt offering for the sin he committed two doves or two young pigeons for ADONAI - the one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering. He is to bring them to the cohen, who will offer the one for a sin offering first. He is to wring its neck but not remove the head, sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar and drain out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar; it is a sin offering. He is to prepare the second as a burnt offering in the manner prescribed. Thus the cohen will make atonement for him in regard to the sin which he committed, and he will be forgiven.
If a man could not afford to buy a lamb, then, we see that God allowed him to bring two doves or two pigeons and we see that a sin offering was made but also a burnt offering was made in the manner that we saw in chapter 1.
"'But if his means are insufficient even for two doves or two young pigeons, then he is to bring as his offering for the sin he committed two quarts of fine flour for a sin offering; he is not to put any olive oil or frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. He is to bring it to the cohen, and the cohen is to take a handful of it as its reminder portion and make it go up in smoke on the altar on top of the offerings for ADONAI made by fire; it is a sin offering. Thus the cohen will make atonement for him in regard to the sin he committed concerning any of these things, and he will be forgiven. The rest will belong to the cohanim, as with a grain offering.'"
Here, we see that even those with the least financially have the opportunity for atonement for their sins. If they could not afford to buy the two doves or pigeons, then fine flour was brought and a portion was burnt on the altar as a sin offering while the remainder was presented as a grain offering which we saw in chapter 2.
ADONAI said to Moshe, "If anyone acts improperly and inadvertently sins in regard to the holy things of ADONAI, he is to bring as his guilt offering for ADONAI a ram without defect from the flock or its equivalent in silver shekels (using the sanctuary shekel as the standard), according to your appraisal of its value; it is a guilt offering. In addition, he is to make restitution for whatever he did wrong in regard to the holy thing; moreover, he is to add to that one-fifth and give it to the cohen. Then the cohen will make atonement with the ram of the guilt offering, and he will be forgiven.
This passage speaks of a person with a rebellious spirit and it speaks of the fact that this spirit may cause them to do things that they do not intend to do which are sinful. Specifically, it is speaking of something done in the wrong manner in the service in the tabernacle. In this case, a sin offering of a ram is made or payment of the worth of the ram is brought. In addition to the sin offering, restitution is made in the form of a payment that is equal to 20% of the value.
"If someone sins by doing something against any of the mitzvot of ADONAI concerning things which should not be done, he is guilty, even if he is unaware of it; and he bears the consequences of his wrongdoing. He must bring a ram without defect from the flock, or its equivalent according to your appraisal, to the cohen for a guilt offering; the cohen will make atonement concerning the error which he committed, even though he was unaware of it; and he will be forgiven. It is a guilt offering - he is certainly guilty before ADONAI."
In the case of someone doing what is forbidden by the commandments without intending to do so, a ram was brought for a guilt offering and he will be forgiven.