"In days to come Jacob will take root, Israel will bud and blossom and fill the world with fruit." NIV translation
Isaiah uses the image of a tree to look forward to a time when the Jews would fulfill their calling. So, what was and is the calling of the Jews?
The Hebrew word that is translated here as "bud" is "parach" and it describes an emerging and spreading like the flowers on a tree while "tsuwts", which means twinkle or shine, is translated as "blossom". The Hebrew word "tenubah" is translated here as fruit and it speaks of a tree bearing its fruit.
We see three stages in the life of a tree as it is planted, cared for so it can grow, and finally it produces fruit.
In this case, Isaiah saw that God would plant descendants of Jacob (Jews) in the land of Israel (the promised land) and they would produce fruit for His kingdom.
This was clearly speaking of the ministry of Jesus and the appointing of His apostles which were Jews.
Isaiah saw that these people would be "planted" in the faith and become disciples of Christ (the promised land). The verse also tells of the fact that they would be a shining example (twinkling) which speaks of the fact that they would be filled with the Holy Spirit. They would fill the world with fruit as in the "fruit of the Spirit". We are reminded of the fact that Paul was one of the most religious of the Jews but was used by God to spread the gospel to most of the known world at that time.
So, has this prophecy been fully fulfilled? Probably not as we are reminded that Isaiah was talking about the last days.
This speaks of the 144,000 sealed witnesses that John saw in Revelation 7. Although Paul and the other apostles were used in their season to produce fruit, this verse speaks of the final season and the great harvest that John saw. These 144,000 will be a remnant that God leaves on the earth through the Great Tribulation and they will be used to demonstrate the power of God. They will prepare people to be residents of the shining city (the New Jerusalem).