"Isaac answered Esau, 'I have made him lord over you and have made all his relatives his servants, and I have sustained him with grain and new wine. So what can I possibly do for you, my son?'" NIV translation
We see that not only did Rebekah play favorites with the children but Isaac did so as well. He had given all of the blessing to Jacob when he thought that it was Esau. Now, there was nothing left for his favorite son.
"Esau said to his father, 'Do you have only one blessing, my father? Bless me too, my father!' Then Esau wept aloud." NIV translation
Esau did not understand why there was no blessing left and so he cried. He had not cried when he gave away his birthright because that involved the spiritual things. He had only cared about the material things in life and, now, it seemed that he had missed out on that as well.
"His father Isaac answered him, 'Your dwelling will be away from the earth's richness, away from the dew of heaven above. You will live by the sword and you will serve your brother. But when you grow restless, you will throw off his yoke from off your neck.'" NIV translation
Isaac's attempt at blessing Esau was a hollow promise compared to that of Jacob. Esau was destined to live in the desert wilderness and to have to fight for everything. Esau and his descendants (Edom) would serve Jacob (Israel) for many years but, as we see in 2 Kings 8:20, they eventually rebelled. They set up their own kingdom and king during the time of Jehoram and they remain in rebellion to this day.
"Esau held a grudge against Jacob because of the blessing his father had given him. He said to himself, 'The days of mourning for my father are near; then I will kill my brother Jacob.'" NIV translation
We see from this verse that the fruit from this favoritism in the family is hate and the hope of murder. Esau decided to wait until his father died and then to kill his brother. We see, once again, that he held the grudge because of the blessing and not the fact that he no longer had the birthright.