1 Samuel 1:1 & 2

"There was a certain man from Ramathaim, a Zuphite from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elkanah son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. He had two wives; one was called Hannah and the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none." NIV translation

We are introduced to a man named Elkanah who was from a town called Ramathaim which is thought to be the town of Arimathea during the time of Jesus' ministry. We are also introduced to his wives one of which was Hannah. Hannah would have been miserable and full of shame at the fact that she had not produced any children.

1 Samuel 1:3

"Year after year this man went up from his town to worship and sacrifice to the Lord Almighty at Shiloh, where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli, were priests of the Lord." NIV translation

We see that Elkanah was a faithful Jew and went to Shiloh each year as required. The occasion described here was probably the Feats of Tabernacles which was a time of joy and feasting. We are also introduced to a corrupt pair of priests who served there under their father Eli.

1 Samuel 1:4 & 5

"Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice, he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters. But to Hannah he gave a double portion because he loved her, and the Lord had closed her womb." NIV translation

Elkanah would distribute the meat for the sacrifices and would give Hannah a double portion. He evidently wanted to cheer her up for her lack of a child. This was a celebration of great joy and yet Hannah would have felt pain and rejection as she had no family to bring to the celebration.

1 Samuel 1:6 & 7

"Because the Lord had closed Hannah's womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her. This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the Lord, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat." NIV translation

Each year, Peninnah would make Hannah feel the shame and guilt of her barrenness. Her sadness would get to the point of tears and not eating at the celebration.