"'Those who were full hire themselves out for food, but those who were hungry are hungry no more. She who was barren has borne seven children, but she who has had many sons pines away. The Lord brings death and makes alive, he brings down to the grave and raises up. The Lord sends poverty and wealth; he humbles and exalts. He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the ash heap; he seats them with princes and has them inherit a throne of honor.'" NIV translation
Hannah declares that prosperity and poverty as well as life and death itself are controlled by God. It is also a reminder that we cannot tell the important things about someone by looking at the exterior. God lifts up the humble and they inherit a place with Him for eternity.
"'"For the foundations of the earth are the Lord's; on them he has set the world."'" NIV translation
We often hear the phrase "life's not fair" and that is true. Here, we see that God has the right to do with us and our lives as He sees fit.
Hannah reminds us that He has that right because He created everything. As the Creator, He owns everything that He produced and can do with it as He pleases. This is referred to as God's sovereignty.
Teaching about God's sovereignty is not popular in our world today as everyone talks of equality but it is still the truth. We do not all become equal until we become one of His children!
"'He will guard the feet of his faithful servants, but the wicked will be silenced in the place of darkness.'" NIV translation
Those who trust in God are His children and a good father always protects his children. Hannah was able to testify about this from first hand experience as He silenced the torment that she had been receiving. The wicked (those who do not believe Him) will live apart from God for eternity in darkness. Though they may have a loud voice that the people of this world listen to, it will do them no good in the end.